Populism is on the rise – especially aao ước Europe’s right, cùng in the US, where it helped crown Mr Trump.

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Italy’s popudanh sách Five Star Movement với anti-immigrant League parties have sầu emerged as two major players in the latest elections – the most recent of several such results in Europe.

In political science, populism is the idea that society is separated inkhổng lồ two groups at odds with one another – “the pure people” cùng “the corrupt elite”, according béo Cas Mudde, author of Populism: A Very Short Introduction.

The term is often used as a kind of shorthand political insult. Britain’s Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn, has been accused of populism over his party’s biểu ngữ “for the many, not the few” – but that’s not quite the same thing.

The word “is generally misused, especially in a European context,” according phệ Benjamin Moffitt, author of The Global Rise of Populism.

The true popucác mục leader claims to represent the unified “will of the people”. He stands in opposition phệ an enemy, often embodied by the current system – aiming lớn “drain the swamp” or tackle the “liberal elite”.

“It generally attaches itself béo the right in a European context… but that’s not an iron rule,” Dr Moffitt said.

Popudanh sách parties can be anywhere on the political spectrum. In Latin America, there was Venezuela’s late President Chávez. In Spain, there is the Podemos tiệc ngọt, và in Greece the label has also been applied béo Syriza. All these are on the left.

But “most successful populists today are on the right, particularly the radical right,” Prof Mudde said.

Politicians “lượt thích Marine Le Pen in France, Viktor Orbuôn bán in Hungary, và Donald Trump in the US, combine populism with nativism với authoritarianism,” he added.


image captionIn Italy, supporters of the popucác mục Five Star movement brandish letters spelling out their government ambitions

Commentators – from Time magazine phệ the President of the European Commission – have been warning about the rise of right-wing populism for years.

“Political scientists have sầu been catching on bự this for the last 25-30 years,” Dr Moffitt says – but admits “there’s been an acceleration.”

Experts point lớn both societal changes like multiculturalism cùng globalism, cùng more concrete crises as behind the rise of popudanh sách parties in Europe.

Martin Bull, Director of the European Consortium of Political Research (ECPR), says the emergence of popumenu parties in Europe could be seen in the early 2000s – but they remained small for several years.

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The swell in support seemed lớn happen “from 2008 – và particularly in 2011, when the banking crisis turned inkhổng lồ a sovereign debt crisis”, he said.

It was a rare occasion when an elite class – the wealthy bankers – could be identified as more or less directly responsible for a crisis which affected the majority of society.

In his book The Global Rise of Populism, Dr Moffitt argues that there are other traits associated with the typical popucác mục leader.

One is “bad manners”, or behaving in a way that’s not typical of politicians – a tactic employed by President Trump cùng the Philippines’ President Duterte.

The other, he says, is “perpetuating a state of crisis” – và always seeming to be on the offensive sầu.

“A popudanh sách leader who gets inlớn power is ‘forced’ mập be in a permanent campaign bự convince his people that he is not establishment – với never will be,” according bự Prof Nadia Urbinati from Columbia University.

She argues that popucác mục ngôn từ is “made of negatives” – whether it is anti-politics, anti-intellectualism, or anti-elite. Here lies one of the populism’s strengths – it is versatile.

Another comtháng thread aao ước popucác mục leaders is they tend bự dislượt thích the “complicated democratic systems” of modern government – preferring direct democracy lượt thích referendums instead, according phệ Prof Bull.

That also ties in lớn its links Khủng authoritarianism, he argues – a laông chồng of trust in the established system gives rise mập “strongman” leaders.

“Ultimately, the leader makes the decision in a way that just isn’t possible in traditional democracies,” he says.

That sentiment is perhaps best embodied by the late left-wing Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, who once said: “I am not an individual – I am the people”.


Such thinking “can lead bự people thinking they’re infallible,” Dr Moffitt said. “It restructures the political space in a new và scary way”.

That is why popudanh sách leaders are often viewed with suspicion – cùng why the term is often used as a type of insult for a politician who promises too much.

“In order béo garner tư vấn, they’re quicker than the establishment buổi tiệc nhỏ Khủng make offers, or Khủng promise lớn change things… that on closer inspection may not turn out to be feasible,” he said.

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