May have, might have, must have

Have you experienced moments when you don’t know what it is happening with your colleagues, friends, teachers, family members or other people? Have you seen them after arriving late to lớn some place or after hjualkaosmuslim.comng an accident? So, in this unit you will learn how khổng lồ express all those deductions you can have to lớn know what may have happened, might have happened or must have sầu happened khổng lồ those people you know.


Reyes, R. (2017)

In the reading section you will read about Sonya, & the things she found out when she got trang chủ from a weekend out with her friends. In the listening section you will hear a dialogue between two friends making deductions about a robbery in their business. And for the writing and speaking, you will make deductions out of a mix of pictures that you are going lớn be presented. This topic is important for you because you will know how to lớn make deductions about your everyday life.

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At the kết thúc of this topic you will:

Be able khổng lồ formulate deductions about the past in different degrees of assertiveness based on the modal verbs must have, may have, and might have to lớn express them in your daily life.

Content May have sầu, might have sầu, must have sầu

The following information is important for you lớn be read so that you get familiar with the grammar structure of the modals + have sầu.

We use the modals must have, may have and might have + past participle to express past probability. • If you are sure that something occurred in the past, must have sầu + past participle must be used. • If you are not sure that something occurred in the past, may have + past participle or might have sầu + past participle must be used. Important: may have sầu + past participle và might have + past participle can be used the same way. In other words: We use must have + past participle khổng lồ express that we are 100% sure that something occurred in the past.

Example: • They are not here. They must have left early. (I’m 100% sure they left the place at any time in the past). We use may have sầu + past participle or might have sầu + past participle to lớn express that we are not 100% sure that something occurred in the past. They are only possibilities. Examples: • Paul isn’t here yet. He might have missed the bus. (I’m not sure if he missed the bus, but it is a probability). • The road may have sầu been blocked. (I’m not sure if the road was blocked, but it is a probability).

Rethành viên that you can use may have sầu + past participlemight have sầu + past participle in the same way. • The doctor isn’t in. He may have gone out khổng lồ practice a surgery. or • The doctor isn’t in. He might have gone out to lớn practice a surgery.

What might have happened?

Have sầu you been far from trang chủ for a couple of days, and when you come back you find things in a different place, or you find out that the members of your family have sầu been doing things without your permission? Let’s read what happened lớn Sonya when she got bachồng from a weekover with her friends.

chyt453. (2015). Student. Retrieved from: https://pixacất cá

Complete the text by dragging the missing sentences inlớn the correct space, you have just two opportunities.

Activity 1

What may have sầu you done?

Vega, M. (2015) You. Retrieved from: https://pixacất cá

Now, that you have already read about Sonya’s situation in the previous exercise. What would you have sầu done in her situation? Make a danh mục of 10 suppositions và kiểm tra your use of may – might have sầu + past participle or must have sầu + past participle.

Use the following Checkmenu khổng lồ check your performance:


Activity 3

What is this chaos?

Listen khổng lồ Allan & Hugo describing the chaos at their trang chính. Play và listen khổng lồ the dialogue. Then drag và drop the phrases inkhổng lồ the appropriate box, based on the order they are mentioned.


Conner, D. (2015). Police Scotlvà. Retrieved from:

Have you ever wondered why accidents happen? Look at the pictures và write a short story (5 to 8 lines) saying what you think happened before each of the images were taken. Use the expressions with the modal verbs must have, might have sầu, & may have.



Manolo Guijarro, M. (2012). Reading newspaper. Retrieved from:">(license)


Continue with the following images.


NA. (2013). Train accident. Retrieved from


NA. (2016). Accident. Retrieved from


Steve sầu, P.. (2016). Wheel chair. Retrieved from


SA. (2016). Car. Retrieved from


Efraimstochter. (2014). Moto. Retrieved from

Sometimes when we know there have sầu been some accidents, we want lớn know why they occurred. We make our guesses, but we simply don’t know the real cause of those accidents. Now, look at the images, & record yourself saying what you think happened before the accidents. Use at least two phrases with the modal verbs you have sầu checked in this topic per image. Sover your audio file.



NA. (2015). Motocicleta . Recuperavị de https://pixacất cá consultavì el 9 de enero de 2017

Your browser does not tư vấn the audio element.

HansLinde, H. (2016). Accident. Retrieved from https://pixacất cá

Xem thêm: Máy Nước Nóng Centon Là Của Nước Nào? Dùng Có Tốt Không? Máy Nước Nóng Trực Tiếp Centon


Brennan, P. (2016). Fire. Retrieved from https://pixacất cá


Moore, K. (2014). Demolition. Retrieved from


Ludwig, D. (2016). Ship. Retrieved from https://pixacất cá


Ryan, C. (2015). Accident. Retrieved from

Now it"s you turn to lớn practice grammar through the following exercises. Drag the words lớn make sentences.

Exercise 1

Remember that a modal + have + action in participle indicates something that may have sầu happened, just lượt thích a supposition. In the following exercise, drag & drop the appropriate option lớn complete the sentences. Example: Someone was knocking at the door. It must have been Mark. He promised to lớn come. (must - be)

Exercise 2
References Basic references

•Thornbury, S. (2004). Natural Grammar. Oxford.•Azar, S. và Hagen, S. (2009). Understanding và using English Grammar. Pearson Longman.

Complementary references

•Coordinación de Universidad Abierta y Educación a Distancia, UNAM. (2011). English truyền thông media. Retrieved from:ái mạ•English (2017). Can - May – Might. Retrieved from:

Desarrollavì por:


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Fiphụ thân de créditos
Coordinación general Jorge León Martínez
Coordinación de desarrollo Edith Tapia Rangel
Coordinación académica Amãng cầu Lilia Villegas Pacheco
Elaboración del contenido Rommel Alejandro Reyes Alonso
Administración del proyecto Maricarmen Hernández Cervantes
Coordinación de asesoría pedagógica Elisa Campero Malo Susamãng cầu Claudio Vargas
Asesoría pedagógica Andrea Lorena Ballesteros Martínez
Coordinación de diseño gráfico e integración Juan de Dgame ios Fuentes Reyes Fabiola Moncadomain authority Cortés
Diseño gráfico e integración Martha Beatríz Sánchez Fuentes